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The OilExpress 4 system adapts to your laboratory’s needs, from dozens to thousands of samples per day. Its modular design makes it possible to scale up your sample throughput or separately utilize the oil dilution capabilities in busy laboratories that are using ICP analysis. The system minimizes your operational costs by reducing instrument downtime, increasing throughput to reduce cost per sample, and offering significant savings from decreased solvent waste.
With throughput demands continually increasing, and an ongoing need for more detailed sample information, PerkinElmer systems are setting the standard for speed and productivity in all areas of lubricants analysis: 1.) Wear metals analysis, 2.) Oil condition monitoring and 3.) Confirmatory testing. Modular and scalable, each solution can adapt as your needs change—no matter what the size of your organization or the demands of your application
Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are common pollutants in grains and are extremely toxic. Pb is harmful to human organs even at trace levels, and once it accumulates in the body, it causes inhibition of hemoglobin formation and neurological disorders. Cd is even classified as human carcinogen [Group 1 - according to International Agency for Research on Cancer]. It is reported that Cd leads to severe kidney problems which can be fatal and is also associated with brittle bones and liver problems. Rice, as the most widely consumed cereal grain in Asia/China, can quickly pick up Pb and Cd from toxins, pesticides and fertilizers in the soil, thereby endangering the health of millions of people through their diet. Therefore, it is extremely important to develop a simple, reliable method to monitor the levels of Pb and Cd in rice. According to Chinese national standard GB 2715-2016 Hygienic Standard for Grain, the maximum concentrations of Pb or Cd in grains must be below 0.2 mg/kg; the allowable level in the European Union is the same [EC 1881/2006]. The official technique for the determination of heavy metals in both cases is graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS, GB/T 5009. 12-2017, GB/T 5009-2017. 15 and EN 14083:2003). Samples can be pretreated using various methods, including microwave digestion, hot block digestion, dry ashing, and hot plate digestion. It is found that these conventional digestion procedures are always complicated and time-consuming (two-four hours or even longer). Plus, conventional sample preparation techniques require large quantities of corrosive and oxidizing reagents, increasing the chance for contamination which could lead to inaccurate results. Special PTFE vessels are needed for microwave digestion; however, reusable utensils might also cause cross contamination.
The London Metal Exchange (LME) issues specifications for a variety of purities for different metals. This work focuses on the analysis of contaminants in nickel with PerkinElmer’s Avio? 500 ICP Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), using “Special Contract Rules for Primary Nickel” as a guideline for the analytes and required concentrations.
Toxic elements, such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), are entering the food chain through environmental contamination. Rice, as the most widely consumed cereal grain in Asia, can quickly pick up Pb and Cd from soil, thereby seriously endangering human health through diet. These toxic element levels need to be carefully monitored. Maximum levels of Pb and Cd are strictly regulated in Asian countries, especially in China; therefore, it is extremely important to develop a simple, reliable method for trace levels of Pb and Cd in rice. The allowable maximum levels of Pb and Cd in grains in EU and China are required to be below 0.2 mg/kg (Commission Regulation EC 1881/2006 and Chinese GB 2715-2016 Hygienic Standard). Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) is the officially recommended technique for detection of trace elements in various food stuffs (GB/T 5009.15-2017, GB/T 5009. 12-2017 and EN 14083:2003). Food samples are usually pretreated before GFAAS analysis using various methods: microwave digestion, hot block digestion, dry ashing, and hot plate digestion. These conventional digestion procedures are usually complicated and time-consuming (2-4 hours or longer). Plus, they require large quantities of corrosive and oxidizing reagents, increasing the chance for contamination which could lead to inaccurate results. However, fast digestion can effectively speed up the sample preparation procedure while reducing the use of corrosive reagents and the chance for contamination.
Globally, heavy machinery is used in construction, mining, and a variety of other areas. As the scale of the operations increase, the size, complexity, and cost of the equipment also increase, meaning that breakdowns can be costly, both in equipment repair and lost revenue. As a result, preventive maintenance is paramount. Lubricants are among the key fluids that can be tested, especially the oil used in engines. By monitoring the elemental concentration of the oil or other lubricants (hydraulics, transmission, gear), the status of that compartment can be determined.
This work focuses on the analysis of wastewaters following the guidelines provided in U.S. EPA Method 200.7. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed Method 200.7 for the determination of metals and trace elements in waters and wastes by ICP-OES, with the current version being Revision 4.4.1 While the scope of this method allows it to be applied to a variety of sample types, a common application is wastewater analysis.
With heavy machinery, it is important to assess its status during operation to prevent breakdowns and costly repairs. A key aspect is monitoring the status of the oil or lubricants used to lubricate various components such as engines, transmissions, gearboxes and many other important areas: if the oil degrades too much or becomes highly contaminated, it can damage various components. Because of its importance, ASTM created a method for the analysis of in-service oils: method D5185.
When blending base oils and additives for use as lubricants, it is important to know and control the concentrations of certain elements for optimal performance and longer engine life. This work will focus on the analysis of additives in new oils using PerkinElmer’s Avio? 200 ICP Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), which overcomes limitations of other ICP-OES systems and X-ray analyses.
The London Metal Exchange issues specifications for a number of different metals in several grades. This work focuses on the analysis of lead of different purities with PerkinElmer’s Avio? 500 ICP Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), using “Special Contract Rules for Standard Lead1” as a guideline for the analytes and concentrations.
The analysis of trace metals in metallurgical matrices also presents a challenge for ICP-OES: spectral interferences. Many elements have a large number of emission lines (i.e. approximately 20,000 for iron), which increases the potential for spectral interferences. This effect is compounded in metallurgical samples, where the matrix element(s) are present at high levels due to the minimal dilutions used.
The analysis of soils for elemental contents presents challenges during the sample preparation step. A common method for preparing a soil sample for inorganic elemental analysis involves digesting the soil sample in an acid that is heated to near-boiling to extract the elements for analysis. When using open vessels in heating blocks, this extraction method typically takes four hours or more to complete. The sample must then be centrifuged or filtered to remove solid particles prior to analysis. The use of a microwave digestion system can speed this up significantly by completing the acid digestion in less than 50 minutes.