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The medication known as Plavix is an antiplatelet drug which prevents platelets in your blood from sticking together to form an unwanted blood clot, that could block an artery. It is used to lower the risk of having a stroke, or serious heart problem after you've had a heart attack, or aid with circulation problems as it helps to keep blood flowing smoothly in the body. The patent expired in 2012 and the drug is now also sold under many generic brands. Plavix tablets contain the active ingredient clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate, which is readily analysed by HPLC. This application brief describes use of a Quasar C8 column in the analysis of Plavix.
Prednisolone, Prednisone and Cortisone are commonly used steroids to treat a range of inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders. These synthetic derivatives of hydrocortisone were developed and approved for medicinal use as early as the 1940’s. American chemists first identified Cortisone as having a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and it was commercialized by Merck in 1948. The first commercially feasible synthesis of prednisone was carried out in 1955 in the laboratories of the Schering Corporation. A C18 HPLC column can be used for the analysis of these synthetic steroids, but they are not well retained, and resolution is incomplete. This application brief will look at the differences in chromatography between the Quasar C18 and AQ phase chemistries for the analysis prednisolone, prednisone and cortisone.
Antibiotics are natural substances released by bacteria and fungi which are capable of killing, or inhibiting, competing microbial species. This phenomenon has long been known; but it was not until 1928 that penicillin, the first true antibiotic, was discovered by Alexander Fleming, Professor of Bacteriology at St. Mary's Hospital in London. However, it was 12 years later that penicillin was isolated and developed as a medicine by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain. Since this breakthrough in therapeutic medicine, derivates of penicillin were developed with increased efficacy levels. Amoxicillin is one of several such semisynthetic penicillin’s. First discovered in the 1960’s its patent has now expired. Consequently, amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav is now marketed under many different trade names worldwide. It is commonly used in the treatment of numerous infections including pneumonia, skin infections and Lyme disease. This application brief illustrates the rapid analysis of amoxicillin using the Quasar C18 column.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a water soluble vitamin found in various foods including peppers, kiwifruit, oranges and kale. It is regarded as an essential nutrient to prevent scurvy, involved in the repair of tissue and also thought to lower cancer risk. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. Since it’s isolation in 1928 it was the first vitamin to be commercially produced. Today it is widely available as a dietary supplement. This application brief describes use of a Quasar biphenyl column in the analysis of vitamin C.
Indoxyl sulfate is one of the most extensively studied solutes that accumulates in the plasma when the kidneys fail. Originally called "indican", it was first isolated by Obermayer and Popper in 1911. High concentrations of indoxyl sulfate in blood plasma are known to be associated with the development and progression of a number of pathological conditions including chronic kidney disease and vascular disease. The scientific literature documents the use of older generation C18 columns, using type A silicas. This application brief will illustrate the application of a new generation C18 column, based on type B silica, for the analysis of indoxyl sulfate, Figure 1, as part of a research study to measure the total levels in a simulated blood serum environment.
Opiates, originally derived from the opium poppy, have been used for thousands of years for both recreational and medicinal purposes.
Sulfa drugs are accredited as the first set of compounds to exhibit antibiotic properties used to prevent bacterial infections in humans. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was developed by Bayer in 1932. The subsequent years saw rapid development of antibacterial drugs and by the 1940’s sulfanilamide was widely used. Though the medicine was relatively safe, allergic reactions such as skin rashes, fever and nausea were common place. With the introduction of less-toxic derivatives and especially with the mass production of penicillin, its use declined. These short acting synthetic sulfa drugs are effective against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms and are now commonly used in veterinary medicine. Sulfathiazole administered to cattle in combination with penicillin and chlortectracyline has been shown to yield higher rates of weight gain and improved feed efficiency. This application brief illustrates the efficient separation of three sulfa drugs using the Quasar C18 HPLC column.
In this application, we describe a technique for the monitoring of six cannabinoids, including THC and CBD, in hemp seed oil by HPLC with PDA detection. Figure 1 shows the chemical structures for the six cannabinoids. In recent years, scientific knowledge regarding the composition and health benefits of edible hemp products has significantly increased. Hemp seed oil has been promoted as a good source of nutritious omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, and may be a cleaner, more sustainable alternative to fish oil.
Speciation studies can provide comprehensive information regarding ion mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity. Consequently, many modern labs are expanding their analytical portfolio to include HPLC-ICP-MS. For such studies, it is advantageous to have an intuitive, user-friendly system that meets the user requirements for automation, ultra-low baseline, powerful integration, and flexible data export. And no one offers a more integrated, versatile, and inert speciation solution than PerkinElmer - accelerate your speciation analysis with the NexSAR? HPLC-ICP-MS Speciation Solution.
The current trend in liquid chromatography is towards the achievement of higher kinetic efficiency and shorter analysis time. Different types of column packings are now available for attaining very fast and high resolution separations without changing instruments, worrying about high backpressure or compromising column longevity. In recent developments of particle technology, the use of superficially porous particles has received considerable attention. This white paper gives an overview about the theory behind the success of superficially porous particles technology and presents a summary of its latest applications.
This application describes an analytical method for the chromatographic separation and quantitative monitoring of seven primary cannabinoids, including THC and THC-A, in cannabis extracts by HPLC with PDA detection. Naturally occurring cannabinoids, the main biologically active component of the cannabis plant, form a complex group of closely related compounds, of which 113 are known and 70 are well described. Of these, the primary focus has been on ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as the primary active ingredient due to its pharmacological and toxicological characteristics, upon which strict legal limits have been enforced.
The origin of statins dates back to the mid 1970’s when the Japanese biochemist, Akira Endo, isolated a factor from the fungus Penicillium citrinum which he identified as a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). This substance, which he named compactin or mevastatin, was the first statin to be administered to humans. Statins competitively inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, especially in the liver. Used to prevent cardiovascular disease and to lower cholesterol levels, atorvastatin is one of a number of synthetic statins routinely produced. It is now the most commonly prescribed statin medication. This application brief describes the robust HPLC analysis of the polar compound atorvastatin using a gradient which reaches 100% aqueous mobile phase conditions.